The concept of artificial intelligence is not new. Humanity has always been obsessed with developing machines capable of performing some of the tasks that humans can, culminating in the invention of the digital computer. In 1956, at a conference at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire, the field of artificial intelligence was formally founded, and the term 'Artificial Intelligence' was coined. Between 1957 and 1997, AI experienced ups and downs, but interest soared after IBM's Deep Blue defeated Gary Kasparov in 1997. With the advent of GPU-based processing in the late 2000s, AI became accessible to the general public, and the field has continued to grow since. As Andrew Ng, Stanford university professor and founder of Deeplearning.ai correctly points out, the change that AI is bringing is analogous to the change that electricity brought to society.
There is no universal or legal definition of artificial intelligence. We frequently use the terms "AI systems," "AI applications," and "AI uses" for the sake of clarity. The term "artificial intelligence" is imprecise and can encompass a range of perspectives. This is because a variety of different techniques are being used to create extremely complex and (partially) autonomous technologies, all classified as artificial intelligence.
In a February 2020 white paper, the European commission states that: ’Simply put, AI is a collection of technologies that combine data, algorithms and computing power’. And also adds that this wording cannot be considered sufficient to define AI.
Using oversimplified terms, Artificial Intelligence (AI) attempts to simulate human intelligence through the use of computer systems. Humans are particularly good at learning and adapting to new environment based on what is learnt. AI tries to achieve these qualities using a set of mathematical algorithms which tries to simulate the way in which the human brain works. In very simple words of Yoshua Bengio, one of the world's leading experts in AI and a pioneer in deep learning, “AI is about making computers that can help us that can do the things that humans can do but our current computers can’t.”